is located in the south central region of New York State. It
is composed of 908 square miles or 581,120 acres. The county
is in the glaciated Allegheny Plateaus were most of the soils are
suited to and used for dairy farming with other land uses such as
woodland and wildlife management. One of the major farming
limitations in the county is poor soil drainage and steep slopes.
Despite the relative steepness, the major stream valleys are fairly
broad where most of the major prime agricultural soils are
found. Elevations range from 880 feet above sea level to a
high of 1,960 feet above sea level. Outside the Adirondack
and Catskill Mountain Ranges, the elevation of the county is fairly
high. Chenango County was once covered and uncovered by several
advances and retreats of glacial ice.
The first ice sheet covered the area about 300,000 years ago and the last retreat occurred 10,000 to 15,000 years ago. The glacial advances caused different soil formations, the most predominant being glacial till. Till is a heterogeneous mixture of soil material, bedrock, minerals, and other particles that are directly deposited by glaciers. These formations can be
| found mostly on
hillsides and ridges where soils are poorly drained due to a distinctive
layer of hardpan. Other soil formations of the county include
glacial outwash, which can be found on present day drainage ways and
alluvial fans that are present in the major river valleys. The
soil texture of the river valleys is gravelly with fine soil deposits. On
hilltops, the soil is shallow with bedrock less that a foot from the
Source: USDA. Soil Conservation Service.,
Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station. Soil Survey
of Chenango County, New York. State of New York, 1985.